Sichern Sie sich tolle Angebote und buchen Sie Ihr Hotel in Aztec, USA online. Gute Verfügbarkeiten und attraktive Preise. Lesen Sie Hotelbewertungen und. Aztec bezeichnet: Orte und andere geographische Objekte in den Vereinigten Staaten: Aztec (Arizona) · Aztec (New Mexico) · Aztec Lodge (Arizona); Aztec. Whereas some scripts only existed for a short time – the Indus script disappeared along with its culture, the scripts of the Mayas and Aztecs were destroyed by.
Übersetzung für "aztec" im DeutschSichern Sie sich tolle Angebote und buchen Sie Ihr Hotel in Aztec, USA online. Gute Verfügbarkeiten und attraktive Preise. Lesen Sie Hotelbewertungen und. Aztec. Alle Bauelemente waren bei den Azteken exakt gleich. Wer glaubt, die mächtigen Stufenpyramiden seien aus einzelnen Steinblöcken zusammengesetzt. Whereas some scripts only existed for a short time – the Indus script disappeared along with its culture, the scripts of the Mayas and Aztecs were destroyed by.
Aztec Navigation menu VideoAztec Sacrifice
The Spaniards and their allies, realizing they were vulnerable to the hostile Mexica in Tenochtitlan following Moctezuma's death, attempted to retreat without detection in what is known as the "Sad Night" or La Noche Triste.
Spaniards and their Indian allies were discovered clandestinely retreating, and then were forced to fight their way out of the city, with heavy loss of life.
Some Spaniards lost their lives by drowning, loaded down with gold. After this incident, a smallpox outbreak hit Tenochtitlan.
Through numerous subsequent battles and skirmishes, he captured the various indigenous city-states or altepetl around the lake shore and surrounding mountains, including the other capitals of the Triple Alliance, Tlacopan and Texcoco.
Texcoco in fact had already become firm allies of the Spaniards and the city-state, and subsequently petitioned the Spanish crown for recognition of their services in the conquest, just as Tlaxcala had done.
Although the attackers took heavy casualties, the Aztecs were ultimately defeated. The city of Tenochtitlan was thoroughly destroyed in the process.
The Aztec Empire was an example of an empire that ruled by indirect means. Like most European empires, it was ethnically very diverse, but unlike most European empires, it was more a system of tributes than a single unitary form of government.
In the theoretical framework of imperial systems posited by American historian Alexander J. Motyl the Aztec empire was an informal type of empire in that the Alliance did not claim supreme authority over its tributary provinces; it merely expected tributes to be paid.
For example, the southern peripheral zones of Xoconochco were not in immediate contact with the central part of the empire.
The hegemonic nature of the Aztec empire can be seen in the fact that generally local rulers were restored to their positions once their city-state was conquered and the Aztecs did not interfere in local affairs as long as the tribute payments were made.
Although the form of government is often referred to as an empire, in fact most areas within the empire were organized as city-states individually known as altepetl in Nahuatl , the language of the Aztecs.
These were small polities ruled by a king or tlatoani literally "speaker", plural tlatoque from an aristocratic dynasty.
The Early Aztec period was a time of growth and competition among altepeme. Even after the empire was formed in and began its program of expansion through conquest, the altepetl remained the dominant form of organization at the local level.
The efficient role of the altepetl as a regional political unit was largely responsible for the success of the empire's hegemonic form of control.
It should be remembered that the term "Aztec empire" is a modern one, not one used by the Aztec themselves. The Aztec realm was at its core composed of three Nahuatl -speaking city states in the densely populated Valley of Mexico.
Over time, asymmetries of power elevated one of those city states, Tenochtitlan, above the other two. The "Triple Alliance" came to establish hegemony over much of central Mesoamerica, including areas of great linguistic and cultural diversity.
Administration of the empire was performed through largely traditional, indirect means. However, over time something of a nascent bureaucracy may have been beginning to form insofar as the state organization became increasingly centralized.
Before the reign of Nezahualcoyotl — , the Aztec empire operated as a confederation along traditional Mesoamerican lines. Independent altepetl were led by tlatoani lit.
A typical Mesoamerican confederation placed a Huey Tlatoani lit. Following Nezahualcoyotl, the Aztec empire followed a somewhat divergent path, with some tlatoani of recently conquered or otherwise subordinated altepetl becoming replaced with calpixque stewards charged with collecting tribute on behalf of the Huetlatoani rather than simply replacing an old tlatoque with new ones from the same set of local nobility.
Yet the Huey tlatoani was not the sole executive. It was the responsibility of the Huey tlatoani to deal with the external issues of empire; the management of tribute, war, diplomacy, and expansion were all under the purview of the Huey tlatoani.
It was the role of the Cihuacoatl to govern a given city itself. The Cihuacoatl was always a close relative of the Huey tlatoani; Tlacaelel , for example, was the brother of Moctezuma I.
Both the title "Cihuacoatl", which means "female snake" it is the name of a Nahua deity , and the role of the position, somewhat analogous to a European Viceroy or Prime Minister , reflect the dualistic nature of Nahua cosmology.
Neither the position of Cihuacoatl nor the position of Huetlatoani were priestly, yet both did have important ritual tasks. Those of the former were associated with the "female" wet season, those of the latter with the "male" dry season.
While the position of Cihuacoatl is best attested in Tenochtitlan, it is known that the position also existed the nearby altepetl of Atzcapotzalco , Culhuacan , and Tenochtitlan's ally Texcoco.
Despite the apparent lesser status of the position, a Cihuacoatl could prove both influential and powerful, as in the case of Tlacaelel.
Early in the history of the empire, Tenochtitlan developed a four-member military and advisory Council which assisted the Huey tlatoani in his decision-making: the tlacochcalcatl ; the tlaccatecatl ; the ezhuahuacatl ;  and the tlillancalqui.
This design not only provided advise for the ruler, it also served to contain ambition on the part of the nobility, as henceforth Huey Tlatoani could only be selected from the Council.
Moreover, the actions of any one member of the Council could easily be blocked by the other three, providing a simple system of checks on the ambition higher officials.
These four Council members were also generals, members of various military societies. The ranks of the members were not equal, with the tlacochcalcatl and tlaccatecatl having a higher status than the others.
These two Councillors were members of the two most prestigious military societies, the cuauhchique "shorn ones" and the otontin " Otomies ".
Traditionally, provinces and altepetl were governed by hereditary tlatoani. As the empire grew, the system evolved further and some tlatoani were replaced by other officials.
The other officials had similar authority to tlatoani. As has already been mentioned, directly appointed stewards singular calpixqui , plural calpixque were sometimes imposed on altepetl instead of the selection of provincial nobility to the same position of tlatoani.
At the height of empire, the organization of the state into tributary and strategic provinces saw an elaboration of this system.
The 38 tributary provinces fell under the supervision of high stewards, or huecalpixque , whose authority extended over the lower-ranking calpixque.
These calpixque and huecalpixque were essentially managers of the provincial tribute system which was overseen and coordinated in the paramount capital of Tenochtitlan not by the huetlatoani , but rather by a separate position altogether: the petlacalcatl.
On the occasion that a recently conquered altepetl was seen as particularly restive, a military governor, or cuauhtlatoani , was placed at the head of provincial supervision.
Between about and A. Recent excavations for a new subway line in Mexico City have turned up the year-old skeletons of roughly 50 Aztec children and 10 adults, as well as numerous artifacts dating back as far as B.
Aztec priests, using razor-sharp obsidian blades, sliced open the chests of sacrificial victims and offered their Tikal is a complex of Mayan ruins deep in the rainforests of northern Guatemala.
Historians believe that the more than 3, structures on the site are the remains of a Mayan city called Yax Mutal, which was the capital of one of the most powerful kingdoms of the ancient empire.
New discoveries are still being unearthed in the area, providing even more insight into the culture and In July , archaeologists announced that the earthquake has also led to the discovery of an ancient, hidden temple.
The temple sits inside a double pyramid at Live TV. This Day In History. Tenochtitlan was one of the greatest cities of the world in that time.
By the early s , at least , people lived in the city. This made Tenochtitlan the largest city in the Americas before Christopher Columbus arrived.
Mexico City now covers the whole area where Tenochtitlan used to be. The Aztecs believed in many gods. Two of the most important gods they worshipped were Huitzilopochtli , the god of war and the sun , and Tlaloc , the rain god.
The Aztecs did many things to keep the gods happy. These things included human sacrifices. The Aztecs also believed that the gods were in an almost never-ending struggle.
The hearts and blood from the sacrifice fed the good gods to give them strength to fight the evil gods. The human sacrifices often took place on the Templo Mayor , the Aztecs' great pyramid temple.
Huitzilopochtli, as depicted in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis. Quetzalcoatl in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis. Tezcatlipoca in the Codex Borgia.
The Aztecs ate plants and vegetables that could grow easily in Mesoamerica. The main foods in the Aztec diet were maize , beans, and squash.
They often used tomatoes and chili as spices. They also created chocolate. However, they did not have sugar , so their chocolate was a strong liquid with chili in it.
In Aztec society , there were different social classes with different social statuses. The most important people were the rulers. Next were nobles.
These were the Empire's powerful members of the government; great warriors ; judges ; and priests. The next social class was the commoners common people.
These were the Empire's everyday workers. Most of them farmed , ran stores, or traded. The Aztec record is particularly rich, and much of it is undoubtedly genuine, although there is always the possibility that records were rewritten or tampered with for political….
This description is based primarily on written documents from the 16th century but also includes some archaeological data. The literature, both published and unpublished, of the 16th century is enormous and takes in all aspects of Aztec culture.
Much of it covers the period…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox!
Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. In cabeceras , the Spanish created Iberian-style town councils, or cabildos , which usually continued to function as the elite ruling group had in the pre-conquest era.
Indigenous populations living in sparsely populated areas were resettled to form new communities, making it easier for them to brought within range of evangelization efforts, and easier for the colonial state to exploit their labor.
Today the legacy of the Aztecs lives on in Mexico in many forms. Archeological sites are excavated and opened to the public and their artifacts are prominently displayed in museums.
Place names and loanwords from the Aztec language Nahuatl permeate the Mexican landscape and vocabulary, and Aztec symbols and mythology have been promoted by the Mexican government and integrated into contemporary Mexican nationalism as emblems of the country.
During the 19th century, the image of the Aztecs as uncivilized barbarians was replaced with romanticized visions of the Aztecs as original sons of the soil, with a highly developed culture rivaling the ancient European civilizations.
When Mexico became independent from Spain, a romanticized version of the Aztecs became a source of images that could be used to ground the new nation as a unique blend of European and American.
Aztec culture and history has been central to the formation of a Mexican national identity after Mexican independence in In 17th and 18th century Europe, the Aztecs were generally described as barbaric, gruesome and culturally inferior.
Intellectuals utilized Aztec writings , such as those collected by Fernando de Alva Ixtlilxochitl , and writings of Hernando Alvarado Tezozomoc , and Chimalpahin to understand Mexico's indigenous past in texts by indigenous writers.
This search became the basis for what historian D. Brading calls "creole patriotism. He wrote it expressly to defend Mexico's indigenous past against the slanders of contemporary writers, such as Pauw, Buffon, Raynal, and William Robertson.
Unearthed were the famous calendar stone, as well as a statue of Coatlicue. A decade later, German scientist Alexander von Humboldt spent a year in Mexico, during his four-year expedition to Spanish America.
One of his early publications from that period was Views of the Cordilleras and Monuments of the Indigenous Peoples of the Americas.
In the realm of religion, late colonial paintings of the Virgin of Guadalupe have examples of her depicted floating above the iconic nopal cactus of the Aztecs.
Juan Diego , the Nahua to whom the apparition was said to appear, links the dark Virgin to Mexico's Aztec past.
When New Spain achieved independence in and became a monarchy, the First Mexican Empire , its flag had the traditional Aztec eagle on a nopal cactus.
The eagle had a crown, symbolizing the new Mexican monarchy. In the s, when the French established the Second Mexican Empire under Maximilian of Habsburg , the Mexican flag retained the emblematic eagle and cactus, with elaborate symbols of monarchy.
After the defeat of the French and their Mexican collaborators, the Mexican Republic was re-established, and the flag returned to its republican simplicity.
Tensions within post-independence Mexico pitted those rejecting the ancient civilizations of Mexico as source of national pride, the Hispanistas , mostly politically conservative Mexican elites, and those who saw them as a source of pride, the Indigenistas , who were mostly liberal Mexican elites.
Although the flag of the Mexican Republic had the symbol of the Aztecs as its central element, conservative elites were generally hostile to the current indigenous populations of Mexico or crediting them with a glorious prehispanic history.
With Santa Anna's overthrow in , Mexican liberals and scholars interested in the indigenous past became more active.
Liberals were more favorably inclined to the indigenous populations and their history, but considered a pressing matter being the "Indian Problem.
The late nineteenth century in Mexico was a period in which Aztec civilization became a point of national pride.
His policies opening Mexico to foreign investors and modernizing the country under a firm hand controlling unrest, "Order and Progress," undermined Mexico's indigenous populations and their communities.
In world's fairs of the late nineteenth century, Mexico's pavilions included a major focus on its indigenous past, especially the Aztecs.
Mexican scholars such as Alfredo Chavero helped shape the cultural image of Mexico at these exhibitions. The Mexican Revolution — and significant participation of indigenous people in the struggle in many regions, ignited a broad government-sponsored political and cultural movement of indigenismo , with symbols of Mexico's Aztec past becoming ubiquitous, most especially in Mexican muralism of Diego Rivera.
In their works, Mexican authors such as Octavio Paz and Agustin Fuentes have analyzed the use Aztec symbols by the modern Mexican state, critiquing the way it adopts and adapts indigenous culture to political ends, yet they have also in their works made use of the symbolic idiom themselves.
Paz for example critiqued the architectural layout of the National Museum of Anthropology , which constructs a view of Mexican history as culminating with the Aztecs, as an expression of a nationalist appropriation of Aztec culture.
Scholars in Europe and the United States increasingly wanted investigations into Mexico's ancient civilizations, starting in the nineteenth century.
Humboldt had been extremely important bringing ancient Mexico into broader scholarly discussions of ancient civilizations.
It was Humboldt…who woke us from our sleep. Although not directly connected with the Aztecs, it contributed to the increased interest in ancient Mexican studies in Europe.
English aristocrat Lord Kingsborough spent considerable energy in their pursuit of understanding of ancient Mexico.
Kingsborough answered Humboldt's call for the publication of all known Mexican codices, publishing nine volumes of Antiquities of Mexico — that were richly illustrated, bankrupting him.
He was not directly interested in the Aztecs, but rather in proving that Mexico had been colonized by Jews. In the United States in the early nineteenth century, interest in ancient Mexico propelled John Lloyd Stephens to travel to Mexico and then publish well-illustrated accounts in the early s.
But the research of a half-blind Bostonian, William Hickling Prescott , into the Spanish conquest of Mexico resulted in his highly popular and deeply researched The Conquest of Mexico His resulting work was a mixture of pro- and anti-Aztec attitudes.
In the assessment of Benjamin Keen , Prescott's history "has survived attacks from every quarter, and still dominates the conceptions of the laymen, if not the specialist, concerning Aztec civilization.
One entire work was devoted to ancient Mexico, half of which concerned the Aztecs. It was a work of synthesis drawing on Ixtlilxochitl and Brasseur de Bourbourg, among others.
When the International Congress of Americanists was formed in Nancy, France in , Mexican scholars became active participants, and Mexico City has hosted the biennial multidisciplinary meeting six times, starting in Mexico's ancient civilizations have continued to be the focus of major scholarly investigations by Mexican and international scholars.
The Nahuatl language is today spoken by 1. Mexican Spanish today incorporates hundreds of loans from Nahuatl, and many of these words have passed into general Spanish use, and further into other world languages.
In Mexico, Aztec place names are ubiquitous, particularly in central Mexico where the Aztec empire was centered, but also in other regions where many towns, cities and regions were established under their Nahuatl names, as Aztec auxiliary troops accompanied the Spanish colonizers on the early expeditions that mapped New Spain.
In this way even towns, that were not originally Nahuatl speaking came to be known by their Nahuatl names. Mexican cuisine continues to be based on staple elements of Mesoamerican cooking and, particularly, of Aztec cuisine : corn, chili, beans, squash, tomato, avocado.
Many of these staple products continue to be known by their Nahuatl names, carrying in this way ties to the Aztec people who introduced these foods to the Spaniards and to the world.
Through spread of ancient Mesoamerican food elements, particularly plants, Nahuatl loan words chocolate , tomato , chili , avocado , tamale , taco , pupusa , chipotle , pozole , atole have been borrowed through Spanish into other languages around the world.
Today Aztec images and Nahuatl words are often used to lend an air of authenticity or exoticism in the marketing of Mexican cuisine.
The idea of the Aztecs has captivated the imaginations of Europeans since the first encounters, and has provided many iconic symbols to Western popular culture.
The Aztecs and figures from Aztec mythology feature in Western culture. Knopf , insisted on a change of title. Aztec society has also been depicted in cinema.
It adopted the perspective of an Aztec scribe, Topiltzin, who survived the attack on the temple of Tenochtitlan.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Aztec. For other uses, see Aztec disambiguation. Ethnic group of central Mexico and its civilization.
Main article: History of the Aztecs. Main article: Aztec Empire. Main article: Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire. Main articles: Class in Aztec society , Aztec society , and Aztec slavery.
Main article: Women in Aztec civilization. See also: Aztec Empire: Government. Main article: Mexico-Tenochtitlan.
Main article: Aztec religion. Main article: List of Aztec gods and supernatural beings. Main article: Aztec mythology.
Main article: Aztec calendar. Main article: Aztec writing. An Aztec bowl for everyday use. Black on orange ware, a simple Aztec IV style flower design.
Main article: Mexican featherwork. Further information: Society in the Spanish Colonial Americas. Main article: Population history of American indigenous peoples.
See also: Society in the Spanish Colonial Americas. Coat of Arms of Mexico , also present in flag. See also: Aztec cuisine and List of Mexican dishes.
Mesoamerica portal Indigenous peoples of the Americas portal Civilizations portal. I believe it makes more sense to expand the definition of "Aztec" to include the peoples of nearby highland valleys in addition to the inhabitants of the Valley of Mexico.
Readers will find some variation in the terms authors employ in this handbook, but, in general, different authors use Aztecs to refer to people incorporated into the empire of the Triple Alliance in the Late Postclassic period.
An empire of such broad geographic extent [ Scholars often use more specific identifiers, such as Mexica or Tenochca, when appropriate, and they generally employ the term Nahuas to refer to indigenous people in central Mexico [ All of these terms introduce their own problems, whether because they are vague, subsume too much variation, are imposed labels, or are problematic for some other reason.
We have not found a solution that all can agree on and thus accept the varied viewpoints of authors. We use the term Aztec because today it is widely recognized by both scholars and the international public.
In English the variant "Montezuma" was originally the most common, but has now largely been replaced with "motecuhzoma" and "moteuczoma", in Spanish the term "moctezuma" which inverts the order of t and k has been predominant and is a common surname in Mexico, but is now also largely replaced with a form that respects the original Nahuatl structure, such as "motecuzoma".
Indeed no conquests are recorded for Motecuzoma in the last years of his reign, suggesting that he may have been incapable of ruling, or even dead Diel Archived from the original on 17 October Retrieved 30 August Online Etymology Dictionary.
Archived from the original on 7 July The New York Times. Archived from the original on 13 January Retrieved 5 January Macmillan Publishers. Archived from the original on 22 September Retrieved 12 April Archived from the original on 12 April Part One: Historical Films".
Native American Films. Archived from the original on 15 October The Early History of Greater Mexico.
Prentice Hall. In Deborah L. The Oxford Handbook of the Aztecs. Barlow, Robert H. The Americas. University of California Press.
Beekman, C. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory. Berdan, Frances Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology. Berdan, Frances F.
Hodge; Michael E. Smith; Emily Umberger eds. Aztec Imperial Strategies. Imperial Strategies and Core-Periphery Relations". The Essential Codex Mendoza.
Aztec Archaeology and Ethnohistory. Cambridge University Press. Berdan, F. Ancient Mesoamerica. Boone, Elizabeth Hill Austin: University of Texas Press.
Brading, D. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bright, W. Brumfiel, Elizabeth M. Archeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association.
Bueno, Christina University of New Mexico Press. Burkhart, Louise M. Indian women of early Mexico. Dialectologia et Geolinguistica.
Campbell, Lyle Oxford Studies in Anthropoical Linguistics, 4. Carrasco, David Boston, MA: Beacon Press. The Aztecs: A very Short Introduction.
Oxford University Press. Carrasco, Pedro University of Oklahoma Press. Charlton, Thomas Mesoamerica Part 1. Chipman, Donald E.