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First played during the —72 season , it is the oldest national football competition in the world. A concurrent women's tournament is also held, the FA Women's Cup.
The competition is open to any eligible club down to Level 10 of the English football league system — all 92 professional clubs in the Premier League level 1 and the English Football League levels 2 to 4 , and several hundred non-League teams in steps 1 to 6 of the National League System levels 5 to The tournament consists of 12 randomly drawn rounds followed by the semi-finals and the final.
Entrants are not seeded , although a system of byes based on league level ensures higher ranked teams enter in later rounds — the minimum number of games needed to win, depending on which round a team enters the competition, ranges from six to fourteen.
The first six rounds are the Qualifying Competition, from which 32 teams progress to the first round of the Competition Proper, meeting the first of the 48 professional teams from Leagues One and Two.
Winners receive the FA Cup trophy, of which there have been two designs and five actual cups; the latest is a replica of the second design, introduced in Arsenal are the current holders, having beaten Chelsea 2—1 in the final.
In , the newly founded Football Association the FA published the Laws of the Game of Association Football, unifying the various different rules in use before then.
Alcock proposed to the FA committee that "it is desirable that a Challenge Cup should be established in connection with the Association for which all clubs belonging to the Association should be invited to compete".
The inaugural FA Cup tournament kicked off in November After thirteen games in all, Wanderers were crowned the winners in the final, on 16 March Wanderers retained the trophy the following year.
The modern cup was beginning to be established by the —89 season, when qualifying rounds were introduced.
Following the —15 edition, the competition was suspended due to the First World War , and did not resume until — The final saw " Abide with Me " being sung for the first time at the Cup final, which has become a pre-match tradition.
Due to the wartime breaks, the competition did not celebrate its centenary year until —81 ; fittingly the final featured a goal by Ricky Villa which was later voted the greatest goal ever scored in an FA Cup Final, but has since been replaced by Steven Gerrard.
Having previously featured replays, the modern day practice of ensuring the semi-final and final matches finish on the day was introduced in Redevelopment of Wembley saw the final played outside of England for the first time, the — finals being played at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff.
The final returned to Wembley in , followed by the semi-finals from The competition is open to any club down to Level 10 of the English football league system which meets the eligibility criteria.
All clubs in the top four levels the Premier League and the three divisions of the Football League are automatically eligible.
Clubs in the next six levels non-league football are also eligible provided they have played in either the FA Cup, FA Trophy or FA Vase competitions in the previous season.
Newly formed clubs, such as F. United of Manchester in —06 and also —07 , may not therefore play in the FA Cup in their first season.
All clubs entering the competition must also have a suitable stadium. It is very rare for top clubs to miss the competition, although it can happen in exceptional circumstances.
Manchester United did not defend their title in — , as they were already in the inaugural Club World Championship. The club stated that entering both tournaments would overload their fixture schedule and make it more difficult to defend their Champions League and Premier League titles.
The club claimed that they did not want to devalue the FA Cup by fielding a weaker side. The move benefited United as they received a two-week break and won the — league title by an point margin, although they did not progress past the group stage of the Club World Championship.
The withdrawal from the FA Cup, however, drew considerable criticism as this weakened the tournament's prestige and Sir Alex Ferguson later admitted his regret regarding their handling of the situation.
Welsh sides that play in English leagues are eligible, although since the creation of the League of Wales there are only five clubs remaining: Cardiff City the only non-English team to win the tournament, in , Swansea City , Newport County , Wrexham , and Merthyr Town.
In the early years other teams from Wales, Ireland and Scotland also took part in the competition, with Glasgow side Queen's Park losing the final to Blackburn Rovers in and before being barred from entering by the Scottish Football Association.
In the —14 season the first Channel Island club entered the competition when Guernsey F. The number of entrants has increased greatly in recent years.
In the —05 season, clubs entered the competition, beating the long-standing record of from the —22 season. In —06 this increased to entrants, in —07 to , in —08 to clubs, and for the —09 and —10 competitions it reached By comparison, the other major English domestic cup, the League Cup , involves only the 92 members of the Premier League and Football League.
Beginning in August, the competition proceeds as a knockout tournament throughout, consisting of twelve rounds, a semi-final and then a final, in May.
A system of byes ensures clubs above Level 9 and 10 enter the competition at later stages. There is no seeding , the fixtures in each round being determined by a random draw.
Prior to the fifth round, fixtures ending in a tie are replayed once only. The next six rounds are the "proper" rounds where all clubs are in one draw.
Entrants from the bottom two levels 9 and 10 begin the competition in the Extra Preliminary Round. Clubs from higher levels are then added in later rounds, as per the table below.
The months in which rounds are played are traditional, with exact dates subject to each year's calendar. The qualifying rounds are regionalised to reduce the travel costs for smaller non-league sides.
The first and second proper rounds were also previously split into Northern and Southern sections, but this practice was ended after the —98 competition.
The final is normally held the Saturday after the Premier League season finishes in May. The only seasons in recent times when this pattern was not followed were — , when most rounds were played a few weeks earlier than normal as an experiment, and —11 and —13 when the FA Cup Final was played before the Premier League season had finished, to allow Wembley Stadium to be ready for the UEFA Champions League final,  as well as in —12 to allow England time to prepare for that summer's European Championships.
Thereafter, the draw for each subsequent round is not made until after the scheduled dates for the previous round, meaning that in the case of replays, clubs will often know their future opponents in advance.
The draw for each of the proper rounds is broadcast live on television, usually taking place at the conclusion of live coverage of one of the games of the previous round.
Public interest is particularly high during the draw for the third round, which is where the top-ranked teams are added to the draw.
In rounds up to and including the Fourth Round Proper, fixtures resulting in a draw after normal time go to a replay , played at the venue of the away team, at a later date; if that replay is still tied, the winner is settled by a period of extra time , and if still necessary, a penalty shootout.
Since —17 , ties have been settled on the day from the quarter-finals onwards, using extra time and penalties. From —19 , Fifth Round ties are also settled by extra time and penalties.
Until —91 , further replays would be played until one team was victorious. Some ties took as many as six matches to settle; in their campaign, Fulham played 12 games over six rounds, which remains the most games played by a team to reach a final.
This led to penalty shoot-outs being introduced, the first of which came on 26 November when Rotherham United eliminated Scunthorpe United.
From —81 to —99 , the semi-finals went to extra time on the day if the score after 90 minutes was a draw. If the score was still level after extra time, the match would go to a replay.
Replays for the semi-finals were scrapped for — , the last semi-final to go into a replay was in —99 when Manchester United beat Arsenal 2—1 after extra time.
The first game had ended in a 0—0 draw. The initial tie finished 1—1 but the Royal Engineers won the replay 2—0 in normal time. The replay saw Arsenal win the FA Cup, 2—1 after extra time.
The original game at Old Trafford ended in a 1—1 draw, while Manchester United won the replay at the Boleyn Ground , 2—1. This European place applies even if the team is relegated or is not in the English top flight.
FA Cup winners enter the Europa League at the group stage. Losing finalists, if they had not qualified for Europe via the league, began earlier, at the play-off or third qualifying round stage.
The FA Cup winners also qualify for the following season's single-match FA Community Shield , the traditional season opener played against the previous season's Premier League champions or the Premier League runners-up if the FA Cup winners also won the league — the double.
Fixtures in the 12 rounds of the competition are usually played at the home ground of one of the two teams.
The semi-finals and final are played at a neutral venue — the rebuilt Wembley Stadium since and respectively. In the matches for the twelve competition rounds, the team who plays at home is decided when the fixtures are drawn — simply the first team drawn out for each fixture.
Occasionally games may have to be moved to other grounds due to other events taking place, security reasons or a ground not being suitable to host popular teams.
However, since , clubs cannot move grounds to the away side's for capacity or financial reasons. If any move has to be made, it has to be to a neutral venue and any additional monies earned by the move goes into the central pot.
In the days when multiple replays were possible, the second replay and any further replays were played at neutral grounds. The clubs involved could alternatively agree to toss for home advantage in the second replay.
The semi-finals have been played exclusively at the rebuilt Wembley Stadium since , one year after it opened and after it had already hosted a final in For the first decade of the competition, the Kennington Oval was used as the semi-final venue.
In the period between this first decade and the reopening of Wembley, semi-finals were played at high-capacity neutral venues around England; usually the home grounds of teams not involved in that semi-final, chosen to be roughly equidistant between the two teams for fairness of travel.
The top three most used venues in this period were Villa Park in Birmingham 55 times , Hillsborough in Sheffield 34 times and Old Trafford in Manchester 23 times.
The original Wembley Stadium was also used seven times for semi-final, between and the last held there , but not always for fixtures featuring London teams.
In , both were held at the Millennium Stadium. In the FA took the decision to permanently use the new Wembley for semi-finals to recoup debts in financing the new stadium.
The final has been played at the rebuilt Wembley Stadium since it opened, in Prior to rebuilding, the final was hosted by the original Wembley Stadium since it opened in being originally named the Empire Stadium.
One exception to this 78 year series of Empire Stadium finals including five replays was the replay between Leeds and Chelsea, held at Old Trafford in Manchester.
In the 51 years prior to the Empire Stadium opening, the final including 8 replays was held in a variety of locations, predominantly in London, and mainly at the Kennington Oval and then Crystal Palace.
It was played 22 times at The Oval the inaugural competition in , and then all but two times until After The Oval, Crystal Palace hosted 21 finals from to , broken up by four replays elsewhere.
The other London venues were Stamford Bridge from to the last three finals before the move to Empire Stadium ; and the University of Oxford's Lillie Bridge in Fulham for the second ever final, in The other venues used sparingly in this period were all outside of London, as follows:.
The FA permitted artificial turf 3G pitches in all rounds of the competition from the —15 edition and beyond. The trophy comes in three parts — the cup itself, plus a lid and a base.
There have been two designs of trophy in use, but five physical trophies have been presented. It was stolen in and never recovered, and so was replaced by an exact replica, used until The FA decided to change the design after the winners, Manchester United, made their own replica, leading the FA to realise they did not own the copyright.
This third replica, first used in , was built heavier to withstand the increased handling. The name of the winning team is engraved on the silver band around the base as soon as the final has finished, in order to be ready in time for the presentation ceremony.
At Cardiff the presentation was made on a podium on the pitch. The tradition of presenting the trophy immediately after the game did not start until the final ; after the first final in the trophy was not presented to the winners, Wanderers, until a reception held four weeks later in the Pall Mall Restaurant in London.
Portsmouth F. Portsmouth's manager Jack Tinn was rumoured to have kept the FA Cup trophy 'safe under his bed' throughout the duration of the war, but this is an urban myth.
Because the naval city of Portsmouth was a primary strategic military target for German Luftwaffe bombing, the FA Cup trophy was actually taken ten miles to the north of Portsmouth, to the nearby Hampshire village of Lovedean , and there it resided in a quaint thatched roof country pub called The Bird in Hand for the seven years of the war.
Just over 60 years later, 80 year old career criminal Henry Harry James Burge claimed to have committed the theft, confessing to a newspaper, with the story being published in the Sunday Pictorial newspaper on 23 February He claimed to have carried out the robbery with two other men, although when discrepancies with a contemporaneous report in the Birmingham Post newspaper the crime pre-dated written police reports in his account of the means of entry and other items stolen, detectives decided there was no realistic possibility of a conviction and the case was closed.
Burge claimed the cup had been melted down to make counterfeit half-crown coins, which matched known intelligence of the time, in which stolen silver was being used to forge coins which were then laundered through betting shops at a local racecourse, although Burge had no past history of forgery in a record of 42 previous convictions for which he had spent 42 years in prison.
He had been further imprisoned in for seven years for theft from cars. Released in , he died in After being rendered obsolete by the redesign, the replica was presented in to the FA's long-serving president Lord Kinnaird.
The redesigned trophy first used in was larger at The show was filmed at Baddesley Clinton and subsequentially aired on the 23rd October A smaller, but otherwise identical, replica was also made by Thomas Fattorini , the North Wales Coast FA Cup trophy, and is contested annually by members of that regional Association.
The replica was made by Toye, Kenning and Spencer. The replica was made by Thomas Lyte , handcrafted in sterling silver over hours.
A weight increase for greater durability has taken it to 6. Each club in the final receives 40 winners or runners-up medals to be distributed among players, staff, and officials.
Since the start of the —95 season , the FA Cup has been sponsored. However, to protect the identity of the competition, the sponsored name has always included 'The FA Cup' in addition to the sponsor's name, unlike sponsorship deals for the League Cup where the word 'cup' is preceded by only the sponsor's name.
Sponsorship deals run for four years, though — as in the case of E. ON — one-year extensions may be agreed. From to , Umbro supplied match balls for all FA Cup matches.
They were replaced at the start of the —14 season by Nike , who produced the competition's official match ball for five seasons. Mitre took over for the —19 season, beginning a three-year partnership with the FA.
The possibility of unlikely victories in the earlier rounds of the competition, where lower ranked teams beat higher placed opposition in what is known as a "giant killing" or "cupset", is much anticipated by the public.
Such upsets are considered an integral part of the tradition and prestige of the competition, and the attention gained by giant-killing teams can be as great as that for winners of the cup.
One analysis of four years of FA Cup results showed that it was The probability drops to At that time, the Football League consisted of two divisions with a combined total of 36 clubs, mostly teams from Northern England and the Midlands , following a gradual increase on the original total of 12 Football League clubs on its formation in Spurs competed in the Southern Football League , which ran parallel to the Football League, and were champions.
Only two other non-League clubs have even reached the final since the founding of the League: Sheffield Wednesday in champions of the Football Alliance , a rival league which was already effectively the tier below the League, which it formally became in upon formation of the Second Division — Wednesday being let straight into the First Division and the Southern League's Southampton in and Upon the Football League's expansion and creation of the Third Division for —21 , all the clubs in the Southern League First Division clubs transferred over and it has been since placed below the League in the English football league system , with the National League sandwiching the two since — This was the first defeat of a top flight team by non-league opposition since , when Sutton United claimed a 2—1 victory at home over Coventry City , who had won the FA Cup two seasons earlier and finished that season seventh in the a First Division.
Hereford finished the shocking comeback by defeating Newcastle 2—1 in the match. They finished that season as champions of the Southern League and were voted into the Football League at the expense of Barrow F.
Some small clubs gain a reputation for being "cup specialists" after two or more giant killing feats within a few years. For non-League teams, reaching the Third Round Proper — where all Level 1 sides now enter — is considered a major achievement.
In the —09 FA Cup , a record eight non-League teams achieved this feat. Chasetown , while playing at Level 8 of English football during the —08 competition , were the lowest-ranked team to ever play in the Third Round Proper final 64, of teams entered that season.
Marine F. In games between League sides, one of the most notable results was the victory by Wrexham , bottom of the previous season's League avoiding relegation due to expansion of The Football League , over reigning champions Arsenal.
Another similar shock was when Shrewsbury Town beat Everton 2—1 in Everton finished seventh in the Premier League and Shrewsbury Town were relegated to the Football Conference that same season.
Since its establishment, the FA Cup has been won by 43 different teams. Teams shown in italics are no longer in existence. Four clubs have won consecutive FA Cups on more than one occasion: Wanderers , and , , , Blackburn Rovers , , and , , Tottenham Hotspur , and , and Arsenal , and , In , Arsenal became the first side to win both the FA Cup and the League Cup in the same season when they beat Sheffield Wednesday 2—1 in both finals.
Liverpool in , Chelsea in and Manchester City in have since repeated this feat. In —99 , Manchester United added the Champions League title to their league and cup double to complete a unique Treble.
The FA Cup has only been won by a non-English team once. Cardiff City achieved this in when they beat Arsenal in the final at Wembley.
They had previously made it to the final only to lose to Sheffield United in and lost another final to Portsmouth in On 6 December , the FA announced that, due to "the increased scope of the review since it was announced"  and Gallafent's other professional commitments, the review would be conducted by Clive Sheldon QC.
Sheldon expected to start writing his final report in August In July , it was reported that the FA's independent inquiry had found no evidence of an institutional cover-up or of a paedophile ring operating within football.
Sheldon's report, likely to be highly critical of several clubs, was initially expected to be delivered to the FA in September ,  but its publication was delayed, potentially by up to a year, pending the retrial of Bob Higgins and possible further charges against Barry Bennell.
Also in December , five former FA executives - David Bernstein , David Davies , Greg Dyke , Alex Horne and David Triesman - called on Parliament's Culture, Media and Sport Committee to propose legislation to reform the FA, saying it was outdated, held back by "elderly white men", and unable to counter the power of the Premier League or "to reform and modernise in a fast-changing world".
In April , it was announced that some reforms, including reducing the size of the FA's board and increasing the number of women, would be submitted for approval to the FA's annual general meeting on 18 May.
However, the proposed changes were criticised by some for not going far enough, particularly to improve minority representation.
However, pressure for FA reform continued fuelled by allegations of racism and bullying in relation to the Mark Sampson and Eniola Aluko cases, and the historical sexual abuse scandal.
In November , Clarke resigned as FA chairman over "unacceptable" language he used when referring to black players in comments to the DCMS committee via video link.
A loophole was closed in May by FIFA which allowed players born in the Channel Islands to choose which home nation within the United Kingdom they will represent at international level.
Although the British Overseas Territories are too small to support professional teams, [ citation needed ] they have produced players such as Clyde Best who have gone on to play professionally in the Football Association, and referees such as Carlyle Crockwell , who have refereed FIFA matches.
The British Olympic Association had fought against 'broken time' — monetary compensation for athletes' earnings when competing in the Olympic games.
At the Olympic Congress in Prague, the British had made an amendment that concluded governing federations should define amateur status for their sports but only in accordance with the definition of amateurism accepted by the Olympic Congress.
At the Olympic Congress in Berlin, Belgian delegates proposed that for each sport the definition of amateur status be left to its international federation.
The BOA argued for a common definition of amateurism and argued that 'broken time' payments were against the Olympic ideal.
One of the first actions of the Football Association was to request the expulsion of the German and Japanese national football associations for their countries' role in World War II.
They were re-acquainted with FIFA in following a second request from Switzerland who had had a previous request rejected in Broadcasting income remains the FA's largest revenue stream with both domestic and international broadcasting rights for England fixtures and the FA Cup tied up until at least In July the FA announced plans to carry out a significant organisational restructure, in order to deliver considerable cost savings to invest in elite England teams, facilities and grassroots coaching.
The FA's income does not include the turnover of English football clubs, which are independent businesses. As well as running its own operations the FA chooses five charities each year to which it gives financial support.
The Chairman of the FA has overall responsibility for policy. Traditionally this person rose through the ranks of the FA's committee structure e.
In politician David Triesman was appointed as the FA's first "independent chairman", the first from outside the football hierarchy. The day-to-day head of the FA was known as the Secretary until , when the job title was changed to Chief Executive.
Taken from The FA's website on 29 September . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Governing body of association football in England.
This article is about the English Football Association. For the term football association, see Football association. For more detail on the sport, see Association football.
For other uses, see FA disambiguation. Laws of the Game. Main article: United Kingdom football sexual abuse scandal.
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